Biodiesel: Growing a New Energy Economy
- This purchase will help support literacy campaigns across the world
- BUY ONE GIVE ONE
Today, 95 percent of global oil is consumed for transportation, and other alternatives are distant possibilities at best. We need a solution now, one that will pave the way to a saner, more sustainable energy future without massive reinvestments in infrastructure and technology transfer. We need biodiesel.
A crop-derived liquid fuel, biodiesel can be made from a wide range of renewable, locally grown plant sources--even from recycled cooking oils or animal fats. The technology is simple and available today, and the benefits of biodiesel are enormous, as both a cleaner-burning vehicle fuel and a source for residential or commercial heating.
Greg Pahlis new book explores the history and technology of biodiesel, its current use around the world, and its exciting potential in the United States and beyond. While biodiesel is not the answer to all our energy problems, it is an important step in the long overdue process of weaning ourselves from fossil fuels. Biodiesel is now coming onstream in Britain: a new plant being built in Scotland this Spring will boost output of the green fuel by up to 35,000 tonnes a year.
More biodegradable than sugar and less toxic than table salt
Produced from domestic feedstocks, reducing the need for foreign oil while boosting the local economy and supporting the agricultural community.
Reduce net CO2 emissions by 78 percent compared with petroleum diesel fuel, cutting greenhouse gases that lead to global warming
Be mixed with petroleum diesel at any level to produce a cleaner-burning biodiesel blend
Be blended with oil for home heating, usually without any retrofits required.
|Number Of Pages||282|
|Item Height||20 mm|
|Item Width||150 mm|
|Item Weight||430 Gram|
|Product Dimensions||150 x 20 x 229|
|Publisher||Chelsea Green Publishing Co|
|Format||Paperback | 282|
Brave new (greasy) world Assessing the global potential of biodiesel Reviewed by Laura Sayre From NewFarm.org April 1, 2005If you haven't yet given much thought to biodiesel, put Greg Pahl's Biodiesel: Growing a New Energy Economy near the top your reading list. My advice is to start not with the introduction--you're probably already familiar with why and how urgently we need develop alternatives to petroleum energy--but to jump in pretty much anywhere else, and then sample your way around the chapters as the feeling grabs you. Apart from the first few pages, this is an inspiring, startlingly positive tale, and one that could potentially do more to change Americans' energy use habits than any of the end of the petroleum age titles currently crowding the booklists.Perhaps the best index of biodiesel's viability is that its current use exceeds its public recognition. Unlike hydrogen, which is hyped by the White House and in full-page glossy magazine ads from General Motors, biodiesel is a fully practicable, ready-to-go alternative fuel technology that doesnt require a total overhaul of our energy infrastructure. Unlike ethanol, which has received strong government support for decades, biodiesel actually yields more energy than it takes to create. Biodiesel produces significantly lower carcinogenic tailpipe emissions than petrodiesel, is more biodegradable than sugar, in Pahl's words, and less toxic than table salt (7). It is benign enough to be shipped by UPS, but it can also be readily blended with petrodiesel in any proportion from one percent biodiesel (known as B1) all the way up to 99 percent biodiesel (B99). It can be used in any diesel engine with few or nomodifications. Maintenance people for truck and bus fleets that have shifted to biodiesel report improved fuel economy and reduced servicing costs.For all of these reasons, you may very well have already directly or indirectly consumed energy generated by biodiesel. Although the current biodiesel trend only dates from the mid 1990s (after a scattering of experiments earlier in the century), global biodiesel production now stands at 750 million gallons a year. Most of that is in western Europeespecially Germany, France, Italy, Austria, and Spainbut there are strong nascent biodiesel movements in eastern Europe, South Africa, India, Thailand, and Brazil, among other countries. In the United States, biodiesel has been used successfully for several years by the U.S. Postal Service, the National Park Service, and all four branches of the U.S. military, as well as by dozens of municipal and school bus systems. Biodiesel is also currently available at around 300 retail filling stations across the United States and is beginning to be offered by home heating oil companies.Advances like these mean that biodiesel is bound to shed its low profile before long, and Pahl's handsome, capable book from Chelsea Green will make an excellent part of the new PR package. Pahl has written an accessible, comprehensive introduction to the who, what, where, when and why of biodiesel: Technically a fatty acid alkyl ester. . . [which] can be easily made through a simple chemical process from virtually any vegetable oil, including (but not limited to) soy, corn, rapeseed (canola), cottonseed, peanut, sunflower, avocado, and mustard seed. . . . [or] from recycled cooking oil or animal fats (6).Pahl opens with abrief account of Rudolf Diesel's development of the diesel engine and his hopes that it would serve as a tool of agricultural development by running on vegetable-oil fuels. (The book's epigraph quotes a speech Diesel delivered in 1912, in which he declared that The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels. . . may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum[.] ) Pahl goes to describe, briefly and clearly, the technical aspects of biodiesel production and consumption, including post-Diesel improvements in fuel processing and engine tuning, the relative value of the various feedstocks, and other practical matters such as the development of international biodiesel quality standards and the willingness of engine manufacturers to warranty their engines for use with biodiesel.Part Two of the book is devoted to a survey of biodiesel developments around the world, while Part Three focuses on activity in the United Statesnot, Pahl notes, because the U.S. has been a leader in the biodiesel industry (it hasn't), but because it plays such a key role in the energy dilemma currently facing the planet, [so that] anything the United States does to try to clean up its act will have a significant impact on the rest of world (149). This is not a manual for brewing your own biodiesel or converting your diesel engine to run on straight vegetable oilthere are other resources for that, which Pahl points tobut it will give you a good solid understanding of the basics of biodiesel and its potential role within a more sustainable energy future.I should emphasize that Pahl is no wide-eyed, nave enthusiast. He does justice to the frictions within the biodiesel community, notably between thedecentralized, grassroots emphasis on running used-fryer-oil (UFO) in vehicles converted to run on straight-vegetable-oil (SVO) and the more ameliorist, mainstream strategy to shift as much diesel usage as possible to a B5 or B20 blend. He duly notes that although much of the early support for biodiesel in this country came from the American Soybean Association, which implemented a soybean checkoff program in 1991 and directed some of the funds toward biodiesel research and legislative efforts, soybeans yield less oil per acre than peanut, safflower, canola, and sunflower (not to mention palm oil, coconut, and jatropha, an inedible tropical shrub). Finally, he stresses that even the most optimistic alternative energy analysts argue that we can probably only replace about 25 percent of our collective diesel usage with biodiesel.It's interesting to reflect on the parallels between the growth of biodiesel over the past decade or so and the growth of organic farming. Although the overall numbers are still small relative to the conventional/petroleum sector, the current rate of expansion is in the double digits, and major players are starting to sit up and take notice. Both Cargill and ADM have invested in biodiesel processing plants in Europe. As with organics, legislative and regulatory encouragements for biodiesel use are beginning to take effect--Minnesota, for instance, has passed a law requiring that all diesel sold in the state after June 30, 2005, contain 2 percent biodiesel. And of course the rising cost of petrodiesellike the rising awareness of the external costs of conventional foodsprovides the best incentive of all. One hopes these parallels can be strengthened into a common platform for sustainable agriculture and sustainable energy. Who knows? perhaps biodiesel can serve as an end use for the otherwise unmarketable GMO-contaminated corn, soy, and canola crops of the future.A final word of caution: I guarantee this book will start you thinking about trading in whatever it is you currently drive, getting your hands on an inexpensive, second-hand diesel-engined vehicle and asking your local greasy spoon what they do with their used fryer oil or harassing your nearest filling station about carrying biodiesel. Last time I checked, Chelsea Green was giving away free Boycott Iraq: Grow Your Own Oil bumper stickers. Have fun.Laura Sayre is senior writer for NewFarm.org.